Health Tips From The Professor What Are Intermittent Fasting Benefits?

Posted January 8, 2019 by Dr. Steve Chaney

Will Intermittent Fasting Make You Leaner & Healthier?

Author: Dr. Stephen Chaney

 

intermittent fasting benefits eating habitsIntermittent fasting is all the rage. If you believe the hype, intermittent fasting will make you leaner and healthier. Some of its proponents claim you don’t even need to give up your favorite foods. You don’t need to give up your Big Macs for fruits and vegetables. You don’t need to restrict what you eat. You just need to restrict when you eat.

If you read the blogs about intermittent fasting, you will come across all sorts of metabolic mumbo-jumbo about ketone bodies, adiponectin, leptin, IGF-1, and blood glucose levels. It sounds so convincing. Don’t get sucked in by these pseudo-scientific explanations. At this point they are mostly speculation.

What are intermittent fasting benefits?

Instead, ask “What is the evidence that intermittent fasting works?” More importantly, ask “What is the evidence it works in human?” Most of the studies have been done in animal model systems. Claims based on animal models may not apply to humans.

This week I will discuss a review on caloric restriction and various forms of fasting that recently appeared in Science, one of the most highly respected scientific journals (Di Francesco et al, Science, 362: 770-775, 2018 ).

This article was a comprehensive review of three closely-related dietary approaches:

  • Caloric restriction in which daily caloric intake is restricted by 15-40%.
  • Time-restricted fasting which limits daily intake of food to a 4-12 hour period.
  • Intermittent fasting in which there is a day or more of fasting or decreased food intake between periods of unrestricted eating.

Note:

  • What the review calls time-restricted fasting is referred to in the mass media as intermittent fasting. What the review calls intermittent fasting is referred to in the mass media as alternate day fasting. To avoid confusion, I will use the mass media definitions.
  • I will focus on what the mass media refers to as intermittent fasting and just briefly summarize the other two approaches.

 

Will Caloric Restriction Allow You To Live Longer?

 

intermittent fasting benefits restrict caloric intakeThe concept of caloric restriction has been around for a long time and is the best studied of the dietary approaches covered in this review. In brief:

  • Caloric restriction has been studied in animal model systems ranging from mice to primates. In every animal model studied, caloric restriction reduced the incidence of age-related degenerative diseases and increased either life span or health span or both.
  • In both animal model systems and humans, caloric restriction lowers cholesterol, lowers blood pressure, improves blood sugar control, reduces inflammation, and reduces oxidative damage.
  • Populations that eat a healthy diet and practice voluntary caloric restriction appear to enjoy remarkable longevity.
  • The effects of caloric restriction appear to operate via the sirtuin anti-aging pathway. Most of the other effects are downstream of this pathway.
  • The effects of caloric restriction (including activation of the sirtuin pathway) are mimicked by resveratrol and related polyphenols.

In short:

  • Caloric restriction and some naturally occurring compounds such as resveratrol are clearly effective in animal model systems and are likely to be effective in humans.
  • However, we live too long to allow definitive studies of the effect of caloric restriction on human life span and health span.
  • This dietary approach has never gained popularity because very few people want to starve themselves just so they can live a longer, healthier life.

 

Intermittent Fasting Benefits:  Leaner & Healthier?

 

intermittent fasting benefits leanerThere are many variations to intermittent fasting. As the review stated, intermittent fasting can mean that food consumption is restricted to anywhere from 4 to 12 hours. However, the most popular version of intermittent fasting at present restricts food consumption to 8 hours followed by a 16-hour period of fasting. Here is what you need to know about intermittent fasting:

  • Once again, most of the studies have been done in rodents. Those studies appear to show that intermittent fasting results in weight loss, improved blood sugar control, lower cholesterol and triglyceride levels and reduced inflammation even when caloric intake remains unchanged. These findings have generated the claims you see in the media. However, you need to remember that what works in rodents does not necessarily work in humans.
  • Unlike caloric restriction, the benefits of intermittent fasting are dependent on circadian rhythm. [Note: If you are unfamiliar with the concept of circadian rhythm, it is a master control that is genetically hardwired into almost every organism on the planet, including humans. In general, circadian rhythm is synchronized with the light-dark cycle.] The effect of circadian rhythm that is relevant to this discussion is that metabolic rate and many of the enzymes involved in food metabolism in humans are more active during the day than at night. Not surprising, animal studies suggest that intermittent fasting is most effective when the feed-fast cycle is synchronized with their circadian rhythm.
  • The timing of the feeding portion of the intermittent fasting cycle also appears to be important for humans. According to the review by Di Francesco et al, the few clinical studies that have been performed on humans show:
  • Limiting food intake to the middle of the day decreased glucose levels, cholesterol & triglyceride levels, and inflammation.
  • Eating a larger breakfast and smaller dinner improved metabolic markers better than when participants ate a smaller breakfast and larger dinner.
  • Type 2 diabetics attained better blood sugar control when most of their calories were consumed in the first half of the day. In contrast, restricting their calories to late afternoon or evening resulted in either no blood sugar improvement or a worsening of blood sugar controls.
  • Finally, subjects lost more weight on a reduced calorie diet when most of the food was consumed in the morning rather than in the evening.
  • If you read the very popular “Obesity Code” book by Dr. Fung you will discover he is recommending a diet that consists of fruits & vegetables, fiber-rich foods, healthy protein & healthy fats, and avoids sugar, refined grains, and processed foods. He also recommends avoiding snacking. That is exactly the kind of diet I recommend in my book, “Slaying The Food Myths.”  If the average American adopted that diet and did nothing else, they would be leaner and healthier. So much for the claim that you can eat all your favorite junk foods and become leaner and healthier by intermittent fasting.
  • Finally, most of the human clinical studies have carefully controlled caloric intake. From these studies it is apparent that many of the metabolic benefits of intermittent fasting come from synchronizing your food intake with your circadian rhythm. However, in those studies that focused on time of eating and did not control calories, food intake was reduced by intermittent fasting. This is the unacknowledged benefit of intermittent fasting. When you restrict the time period for eating and restrict snacking you generally end up eating less. Thus, the weight loss associated with intermittent fasting may be caused by reduced caloric intake rather than fasting.

What Does This Mean For You? Here are the take-home lessons from this review:

  • intermittent fasting benefits healthierMost of the studies on intermittent fasting have been done with animals, not with humans.
  • Both animal and human studies suggest that the benefits of intermittent fasting result from synchronizing your food intake with your circadian rhythm. The old adage of “Eat breakfast like a king, lunch like a prince, and dinner like a pauper” may be true for most of us. [Note: Circadian rhythms vary slightly from person to person. Some people will do better by their fast at mid-day rather than at breakfast. However, they will probably still benefit by eating a bigger meal mid-day and a smaller meal in the evening.]
  • Although there is no conscious effort to control calories, intermittent fasting appears to result in an inadvertent reduction in food intake by restricting the time allowed for eating and by eliminating late night snacking. This reduction in caloric intake is likely responsible for much of the weight loss associated with intermittent fasting.
  • In summary, intermittent fasting appears to work, but it is not clear whether you need to follow a rigid schedule of eating and fasting. The available clinical studies suggest that if you eat a healthy, primarily plant-based diet, eat most of your calories early in the day, don’t snack between meals, and don’t eat anything after dinner, you will obtain most, if not all, of the benefits attributed to intermittent fasting.

If you define intermittent fasting that way, the professor has been doing intermittent fasting for years. He just didn’t know that was what he was doing.

 

Does Alternate Day Fasting Make You Healthier?

 

intermittent fasting benefits alternate dayFasting regimens promoted for weight loss typically involve one or several days in which no or few calories are consumed followed by a period of unrestricted eating.

At present, the two most popular regimens are the alternate day fast and the alternate day modified fast. The alternate day fast involves a 24-hour water fast followed by a normal feeding period of 24-hours. The alternate day modified fast reduces caloric intake to 25% of normal on fasting days. Here is a brief summary of what we know about alternate day fasting:

  • Once again, most of the studies have been done in animals.
  • Since neither animals nor humans generally consume double their normal caloric intake during the 24-hour feeding period, alternate day fasting results in an overall reduction in caloric intake. Not surprisingly, the benefits of alternate day fasting in animal studies are similar to the benefits observed with caloric restriction.
  • Short-term human clinical trials suggest that alternate day fasting results in weight loss. The weight loss causes an improvement in blood sugar control, lower blood pressure, and lower cholesterol & triglyceride levels. Based on these studies, alternative day fasting is likely to be an effective strategy for short-term weight loss and has some short-term health benefits.
  • However, there are no long-term studies on the effectiveness of this approach. It is highly unlikely that most people would be able to follow this regimented a diet plan long term. Thus, it is also unlikely that the weight loss and health benefits can be maintained long term.
  • Finally, fasting is not for everyone. It is generally not recommended for people who are hypoglycemic, the elderly, pregnant women, and people with eating disorders.

 

The Bottom Line

 

In this article I discussed a recent review of intermittent fasting and other approaches that involved fasting or long-term caloric restriction. Here are the take-home lessons on intermittent fasting:

  • Most of the studies on intermittent fasting have been done with animals, not with humans. Many of the claims you hear about on the benefits of intermittent fasting are based on the animal studies. They may not apply to humans.
  • Both animal and human studies suggest that the benefits of intermittent fasting result from synchronizing your food intake with your circadian rhythm. The old adage of “Eat breakfast like a king, lunch like a prince, and dinner like a pauper” may be true for most of us. [Note: Circadian rhythms vary slightly from person to person. Some people will do better by breaking their fast at mid-day rather than at breakfast. However, they will probably still benefit by eating a bigger meal mid-day and a smaller meal in the evening.]
  • Although there is no conscious effort to reduce calories, intermittent fasting appears to result in an inadvertent reduction in food intake by restricting the time allowed for eating and by eliminating late night snacking. This reduction in caloric intake is likely responsible for much of the weight loss associated with intermittent fasting.
  • In summary, intermittent fasting appears to be beneficial, but it is not clear whether you need to follow a rigid schedule of eating and fasting. The available clinical studies suggest that if you eat a healthy, primarily plant-based diet, eat most of your calories early in the day, don’t snack between meals, and don’t eat anything after dinner, you will obtain most, if not all, of the benefits attributed to intermittent fasting. If you define intermittent fasting that way, the professor has been doing intermittent fasting for years. He just didn’t know that was what he was doing.

For more details on intermittent fasting and for a discussion of long-term caloric restriction and alternate day fasting read the article above.

 

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

Health Tips From The Professor 300th Issue Celebration: The Latest Developments in Health, Nutrition & Fitness

Posted January 2, 2019 by Dr. Steve Chaney

Nutrition Breakthroughs Over The Last Two Years

Author: Dr. Stephen Chaney

developments health nutrition fitness celebrationIn the six years that I have been publishing “Health Tips From The Professor,” I have tried to go behind the headlines to provide you with accurate, unbiased health information that you can trust and apply to your everyday life. The 300th issue of any publication is a major cause for celebration and reflection, especially when its publication coincides with the first day of a brand-new year – and “Health Tips From The Professor” is no different.

I am dedicating this issue to reviewing some of the major stories I have covered in the past 100 issues. There are lots of topics I could have covered, but I have chosen to focus on three types of articles:

  • Articles that have debunked long-standing myths about nutrition and health.
  • Articles that have corrected some of the misinformation that seems to show up on the internet on an almost daily basis.
  • Articles about the issues that most directly affect your health.

 

What Diets Are Best For Weight Loss?

developments health nutrition fitness diet weight lossSince this review is being written in January, let’s start with some of the articles about diets and weight loss. I have covered the effectiveness of the Paleo, Keto, Mediterranean, DASH, vegetarian, and Vegan diets for both short and long-term weight loss in my book “Slaying The Food Myths,”  so I won’t repeat that information here. Instead, I will cover the popular Whole 30 Diet. I will also address the value of DNA tests in predicting which diet is best for you when it comes to weight loss.

I reviewed the Whole 30 Diet this past January. There is a lot to like about this diet, but some things to dislike as well. Here is a brief summary:  Because it is a very rigid diet, it is excellent for short-term weight loss. What is less clear is whether it is good for weight maintenance or is even healthy over the long term. For more details, check out my article The Whole 30 Diet.

As for DNA testing, my recent article, Can Genetics Predict Which Diet is Best for You, in Health Tips From The Professor reviewed a study that looked at the value of DNA tests at predicting whether a low carb or low fat diet would be better at helping you lose weight. The article made some interesting observations about the relative value of low-carb and low-fat diets for weight loss. However, the most important conclusion of the study was that DNA testing was of no value at predicting whether a low-carb or low-fat diet would be the best weight loss strategy for you.

 

Can Diet Influence Long-Term Health Outcomes?

developments health nutrition fitness diet long termThis topic was a major focus of “Slaying The Food Myths.”

Let me start with a quiz:

Hint: The answer is slightly different in each case, but these are all whole-food, primarily plant-based diets. If you have forgotten the details, you may wish to check these articles out.

Here are some articles that didn’t make it into the book:

The answer to each of these questions appears to be yes. If any of these are a concern for you, you’ll want to read the corresponding article.

 

Food Controversies And Your Health

developments health nutrition fitness food controversiesI discussed a lot of food controversies in “Slaying The Food Myths,” but here are a few that didn’t make it into the book.

 

Junk Foods And Your Health

developments health nutrition fitness junk foodsI discussed sugar myths and pointed out that artificially sweetened foods were no better for you in “Slaying The Food Myths.”  Here are some other topics that may be of interest.

 

Myths That Supplements Are Worthless

developments health nutrition fitness supplements mythsIn my book “Slaying The Supplement Myths” I showed that many of the claims that supplements were either worthless or dangerous were simply myths kept alive by the pharmaceutical/medical industry and “Dr. Strangelove’s” nutrition blogs. For example, in my book I listed clinical studies that have disproved claims that:

  • Soy causes breast cancer
  • Methylfolate is required for everyone with MTHFR deficiency
  • Folic acid causes colon cancer.
  • Vitamin E and selenium cause prostate cancer.
  • B6 and B12 cause lung cancer in men.
  • Calcium supplements cause heart disease.

Just to name a few. However, new studies suggesting that supplements may be ineffective keep emerging, and each study is ballyhooed by the pharmaceutical/medical industry and the media. Let me update you with my reviews of studies that have been published since my book was written.

However, before I do that, let me put the controversies into perspective by looking at the strengths and weaknesses of the clinical studies behind the headline. I have written two articles on that topic in the past two years.

  • In “Are Clinical Studies Misleading?”  I discuss the reasons why the same kind of clinical studies that work well for determining the efficacy of drugs are ill suited for determining the efficacy of supplements.
  • In “None Of Us Are Perfect”  I point out that clinical studies are based on averages, and none of us are average. What worked for most participants in the study, might not work for you. Conversely, even if a supplement did not work for the average participant in a study, it might work for you.

With that in mind, lets look at some recent studies that have made the headlines.

 

Omega-3s And Heart Disease Risk

developments health nutrition fitness omega 3 heart diseaseI covered this topic in detail in my book. However, four recent studies have been published since the book was written. One of the studies declared that omega-3s were worthless at reducing heart disease risk. The other three studies were much more positive, although you wouldn’t know that from some of the headlines in the media.

The bottom line is that evidence for a beneficial effect of omega-3 supplements on reducing heart disease risk is becoming much stronger, although you probably won’t hear that from your doctor or the media. If you want to know how much and what kind of omega-3s are optimal, you will want to read my articles.

 

Vitamin D: Myths Versus Truth

developments health nutrition fitness vitamin d mythsTwo recent studies have been published questioning the importance of vitamin D supplementation. The first study claimed that vitamin D supplementation was ineffective for maintaining healthy bones in the elderly. If you believed the headlines, the second study showed that vitamin D was ineffective at reducing both heart disease and cancer. If you read the paper, you discovered that the authors did show benefits of vitamin D at preventing cancer deaths in the general population and reducing cancer risk in high risk groups. However, both studies suffered from some serious flaws that limited the ability of the studies to clearly demonstrate the benefits of vitamin D supplementation.

  • You will find my analysis of the vitamin D and bone health study in “Are Vitamin D Supplements Worthless?”
  • You will find my analysis of the vitamin D, heart health, and cancer study in “The Truth About Vitamin D.”
  • In “Does Vitamin D Reduce Cancer Risk?” you will find my review of another major clinical study that concluded vitamin D does reduce cancer risk. That study also shows why it has been so difficult for other studies to demonstrate a clear benefit of vitamin D at reducing cancer risk.

 

The “Dark Side” Of The Food Supplement Industry

developments health nutrition fitness dark side of food supplement industryI covered the dark side of the supplement industry in great detail in my book “Slaying The Supplement Myths.” Here are a few more examples that have crossed my desk since the book was written:

 

What Does The Future Hold?

I have just touched on a few of my most popular articles in the list I gave you above. You may want to scroll through that list to find articles of interest to you that you might have missed. If you don’t see what you are looking for, just go to https://www.healthtipsfromtheprofessor.com and type the appropriate term in the search box.

In the coming year, you can look for more articles debunking myths, exposing lies and providing balance to the debate about the health topics that affect you directly. As always, I pledge to provide you with scientifically accurate, balanced information that you can trust. I will continue to do my best to present this information in a clear and concise manner so that you can understand it and apply it to your life.

If you have other topics that you would like me to cover, please click on the link below to enter your suggestions in the comment box.

Final Comment: You may wish to share the valuable resources in this article with others. If you do, then copy the link at the top and bottom of this page into your email. If you just forward this email and the recipient unsubscribes, it will unsubscribe you as well.

 

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

Health Tips From The Professor Merry Christmas

Merry Christmas 2018

Author: Dr. Stephen Chaney

 

merry christmas 2018The Christmas season is a wonderful time of year. It is a time when we get together with family and reconnect with friends. It’s a time of year when we remember the joy of giving and the joy of making the world a better place.

For those of us who are Christians, it is a time to remember that God gave us his only son. But, no matter what our religion, it is a time of year when we can focus on the common beliefs we share and the true purpose of our lives here on earth. It is a time to share the Christmas spirit of peace on earth and good will to all.

 

The Professor and his family wish you a blessed Christmas and happy, healthy & prosperous New Year.

Health Tips From The Professor Enjoy A Stress-Free Holiday Season

Posted December 18, 2018 by Dr. Steve Chaney

Stay Pain Free

Author: Julie Donnelly, LMT –The Pain Relief Expert

Editor: Dr. Steve Chaney

 

Welcome To December – It’s The Most Wonderful Time Of Year

This is such a beautiful season with lots of special events filling up our time. There are holiday gatherings and good food, in fact, even the TV commercials are more fun to watch than normal.  But, how do we still enjoy a stress-free holiday?

This time of year is a mixed blessing for many people.  The fun of getting together with friends and family can be tempered with the stress of trying to do too much in a limited time, and the additional stress of the extra financial outlay. It’s easy to forget to take care of ourselves when we’re focusing on a long “to-do” list.

 

Enjoy A Stress-Free Holiday Season

stress free techniqueHere’s a quick 3-minute relaxation technique that will help bring peace and release stress:

  • Sit in a comfortable chair. Have your hands relaxed at your side, and your feet flat on the floor.
  • Take 2-3 slow, deep breaths…breathing out tension and mentally sinking down into the chair.
  • Visualize tension melting like ice cream, starting at your forehead and slowly going all the way down your body until it is flowing out through your fingertips and toes.  Enjoy the feeling as the tension is draining away.
  • Next, visualize pure, positive energy in the form of diamond-dust showering you, moving down from your head and flowing out through your hands and feet. “See” it sparkling…pink, blue, yellow…shining crystals that bring calmness to your body.

Enjoy the feeling for as long as possible before slowly coming back to reality.  Once you have done this a few times you’ll be able to sit quietly and fast-forward the entire process to less than a minute.

You Are Your Own Best Therapist

YOU are your own Best Therapist!  Visit www.JulstroMethod.com and www.FlexibleAthlete.com to discover logical answers to questions about chronic pain and repetitive strain injuries.

 

Wishing you well,

julie donnelly

Julie Donnelly

 

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

 

About The Author

Julie Donnelly is a Deep Muscle Massage Therapist with 20 years of experience specializing in the treatment of chronic joint pain and sports injuries. She has worked extensively with elite athletes and patients who have been unsuccessful at finding relief through the more conventional therapies.

She has been widely published, both on – and off – line, in magazines, newsletters, and newspapers around the country. She is also often chosen to speak at national conventions, medical schools, and health facilities nationwide.

Health Tips From The Professor The Truth About Vitamin D

Posted December 11, 2018 by Dr. Steve Chaney

Does Vitamin D Reduce Risk Of Heart Disease & Cancer?

Author: Dr. Stephen Chaney

 

the truth about vitamin dYou have every right to be confused. One day you are told that vitamin D reduces your risk of heart disease and cancer. The next day you are told vitamin D makes has no effect on those diseases. You are told vitamin D is a waste of money. What should you believe?  What is the truth about vitamin D?

In mid-November a major clinical study called VITAL was published. It examined the effect of vitamin D and omega-3s on heart disease and cancer risk. Last week I wrote about the omega-3 portion of the study. This week I will cover the vitamin D portion of the study.

Once again, if you rely on the media for your information on supplementation, you are probably confused. Headlines ranged from “Vitamin D Is Ineffective For Preventing Cancer And Heart Disease to “Vitamin D Lowers Odds Of Cancer Death.” What is the truth?

The problem is that reporters aren’t scientists. They don’t know how to interpret clinical studies. What they report is filtered through their personal biases. That is why I take the time to carefully evaluate the clinical studies, so I can provide you with accurate information. Let me sort through the dueling headlines and give you the truth about vitamin D, cancer, and heart disease.

How Was The Study Designed?

the truth about vitamin d studyThe VITAL study (JE Manson et al, New England Journal of Medicine, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1811403) enrolled 25,871 healthy adults (average age = 67) in the United States. The study participants were 50% female, 50% male, and 20% African American. None of the participants had preexisting cancer or heart disease. The characteristics of the study group were typical of the American population at that age, namely:

  • The average BMI was 28, which means that most of the participants were significantly overweight.
  • 7% of them had diabetes.

Study participants were given questionnaires on enrollment to assess clinical and lifestyle factors including dietary intake. Blood samples were taken from about 65% of the participants to determine 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (a measure of vitamin D status) at baseline and at the end of the first year. The participants were given either 2,000 IU of vitamin D/day or a placebo and followed for an average of 5.3 years.

There were two important characteristics of the participants in this study that may have influenced the outcome.

  • The average 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of participants at the beginning of the study was 31 ng/ml (78 nmol/L). The NIH considers 20-50 ng/ml (50-125 nmol/L) to be the optimal level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D for most physiological functions. This means that study participants started in the middle of the optimal range with respect to vitamin D status.

[Note: The NIH defines the 20-50 ng/ml range as “adequate.”  However, I know many of my readers like to aim beyond adequate to reach what they consider to be “optimal.”  In the case of vitamin D, that might not be a good idea. The NIH considers anything above 50 ng/ml as associated “with potentially adverse effects.”  For that reason, I will refer to the 20-50 ng/ml range as optimal for this article. I wouldn’t want to encourage my readers to be aiming for above 50 ng/ml.]

  • Only 12.7% of participants had 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels below 20 ng/ml, which the NIH considers to be inadequate. The results with this group were not statistically different from the study participants with optimal vitamin D status, but it is not clear that there were enough people in this subgroup for a statistically valid comparison with participants starting with an optimal vitamin D status.
  • At the end of the first year, 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in the treatment group increased to 42 ng/ml (105 nmol/L), which is near the upper end of the optimal range. Thus, for most of the participants, the study was evaluating whether there was a benefit of increasing vitamin D status from the middle to the upper end of the optimal range.
  • The study allowed subjects to continue taking supplements that contained up to 800 IU of vitamin D. While the authors tried to correct for this statistically, it is a confounding variable.

Does Vitamin D Reduce The Risk Of Cancer?

 

the truth about vitamin d and cancerYou may remember from last week that omega-3s were more effective for reducing heart disease risk than for reducing cancer risk. What is the truth about vitamin D and cancer risk?   The results are reversed for vitamin D, so I will discuss cancer first.

The study reported that vitamin D supplementation did not reduce a diagnosis of invasive cancer of any type, breast cancer, prostate cancer, or colon cancer during the 5.3-year time-period of this study. This was the result that was reported in the abstract and was what lazy journalists, who never read past the abstract, reported.

However, the rest of the study was more positive. For example, occurrence of invasive cancer of any type was reduced by:

  • 23% in African-Americans.
  • 24% in patients with a healthy body weight.

Several previous studies have suggested that vitamin D may be more effective at preventing cancer in people with a healthy body weight, but the mechanism of this effect is currently unknown.

Most previous studies have not included enough African-Americans to determine whether they respond more favorably to vitamin D supplementation. However, African-Americans have a higher risk of cancer, so this finding deserves follow-up.

In addition, when the study looked at deaths from cancer, the results were very positive. For example:

  • Cancer deaths during the 5.3-year study period were reduced by 17%.
  • The longer vitamin D supplementation was continued the more effective it became at reducing cancer deaths. For example,
  • When the authors excluded cancer deaths occurring during the first year of supplementation, vitamin D reduced cancer deaths by 21%.
  • When the authors excluded cancer deaths occurring during the first two years of supplementation, vitamin D reduced cancer deaths by 25%.

Finally, no side effects were noted in the vitamin D group.

 

Does Vitamin D Reduce The Risk Of Heart Disease?

 

the truth about vitamin d and heart diseaseThe VITAL study also looked at the effect of vitamin D on heart disease risk. What is the truth about vitamin D and heart disease?  The results from this study were uniformly negative. There was no effect of vitamin D supplementation on all major cardiovascular events combined, heart attack, stroke, or death from heart disease. Does that mean vitamin D has no role in reducing heart disease risk? That’s not clear.

The authors had a thought-provoking explanation for why the results were negative for heart disease, but positive for cancer. Remember that the participants in this trial started with a 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of 31 ng/ml and increased it to at least 42 ng/ml with vitamin D supplementation.

The authors stated that previous studies have suggested the 25-hydroxyvitamin D level associated with the lowest risk for heart disease is between 20 and 25 ng/ml. If that is true, most of the participants in this trial were already in the lowest possible risk for heart disease with respect to vitamin D status before the study even started. There would be no reason to expect additional vitamin D to further reduce their risk of heart disease.

In contrast, the authors said that previous studies suggest the 25-hydroxyvitamin D level associated with the lowest risk of cancer deaths is above 30 ng/ml. If that is true, it would explain why vitamin D supplementation in this study was effective at reducing cancer deaths.

However, previous placebo-controlled clinical studies have also been inconclusive with respect to vitamin D and heart disease. My recommendation would be to think of adequate vitamin D status as part of a holistic approach to reducing heart disease – one that includes a heart-healthy diet and a heart-healthy lifestyle – rather than a “magic bullet” that decreases heart disease risk by itself.

As for heart-healthy diets, I discuss the pros and cons of various diets in my book, “Slaying The Food Myths.”  As I discuss in my book, the weight of scientific evidence supports primarily plant-based diets that include omega-3s as heart healthy. As an example, the Mediterranean diet is primarily plant-based and is rich in healthy oils like olive oil and omega-3s. It is associated with reduced risk of both heart disease and cancer.

 

What Is The Truth About Vitamin D?

 

the truth about vitamin d signThere is a lot of confusion around the question of whether vitamin D reduces the risk of cancer. This study strengthened previous observation suggesting that vitamin D supplementation decreases cancer deaths. However, it is also consistent with previous studies that have failed to find an effect of vitamin D on cancer development. How can we understand this apparent discrepancy? The authors provided a logical explanation. They pointed out that:

  • Cancer development takes 20-30 years while this clinical study lasted only 5.3 years. That means that vitamin D supplementation only occurred at the tail end of the cancer development process. In fact, the cancer was already there in most of the patients in the study who developed cancer. It just had not been diagnosed yet. In the words of the authors: “Given the long latency for cancer development, extended follow-up is necessary to fully ascertain potential effects [of vitamin D supplementation].”
  • In contrast, none of the patients had been diagnosed with cancer when they entered the trial. That means that the patients were diagnosed with cancer during the 5.3-year study period. They were receiving extra vitamin D during the entire period of cancer treatment. Thus, the effect of vitamin D on reducing cancer deaths was easier to detect.

What Does This Study Mean For You?

the truth about vitamin d questionsVitamin D Is Likely To Decrease Your Risk Of Dying From Cancer: When you combine the results of this study with what we already know about vitamin D and cancer, the results are clear. Vitamin D appears to reduce your risk of dying from cancer. More importantly, the longer you have been supplementing with vitamin D, the greater your risk reduction is likely to be.

Vitamin D May Decrease Your Risk Of Developing Cancer: Association studies suggest that optimal vitamin D status is associated with decreased cancer risk, especially colon cancer risk. However, the long time for cancer development means that we may never be able to prove this effect through double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials.

Holistic Is Best: When you combine the VITAL study results with what we already know about vitamin D and heart disease, it appears that supplementing with vitamin D is unlikely to reduce your risk of developing heart disease unless you are vitamin D deficient. However, a holistic approach that starts with a healthy, primarily plant-based diet and makes sure your vitamin D status is adequate is likely to be effective.

The same is likely true for cancer. While the latest study suggests that vitamin D supplementation reduces your risk of dying from cancer, those vitamin D supplements are likely to be even more effective if you also adopt a healthy diet and lifestyle.

How Much Vitamin D Do You Need? The optimal dose of vitamin D is likely to be different for each of us. One of the things we have learned in recent years is that there are significant differences in the efficiency with which we convert vitamin D from diet and/or sun exposure into the active form of vitamin D in our cells. Fortunately, the blood test for 25-hydroxyvitamin D is readily available and is widely considered to be an excellent measure of our vitamin D status.

I recommend that you have your blood level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D tested on an annual basis. Based on the best currently available data, I recommend you aim for >20 ng/ml (50 nmol/L) if you wish to minimize your risk of heart disease and >30 ng/ml (75 nmol/L) if you wish to minimize your risk of cancer. If you can achieve those levels through diet and a multivitamin supplement, that is great. If not, I would recommend adding a vitamin D supplement until those levels are achieved.

Finally, you shouldn’t think of vitamin D as a magic bullet. If you are a couch potato and eat sodas and junk food, don’t expect vitamin D to protect you from cancer and heart disease. You should think of maintaining adequate 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels as just one component of a holistic approach to healthy, disease-free living.

 

The Bottom Line

 

There is a lot of confusion around the question of whether vitamin D reduces the risk of cancer and heart disease. A major clinical study has just been published that sheds light on these important questions. It reported:

  • Vitamin D did not decrease the risk of developing cancer during the 5.3-year study duration. The authors pointed out that cancer takes 20-30 years to develop, which means their study was probably too short to detect an effect of vitamin D on the risk of developing cancer.
  • Vitamin D did decrease the risk of dying from cancer, and the longer people were supplementing with vitamin D the bigger the protective effect of vitamin D was.
  • Vitamin D did not decrease the risk of heart disease. However, most study participants had a level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D that was optimal for reducing the risk of heart disease at the beginning of the study. There was no reason to expect that extra vitamin D would provide additional benefit.
  • With respect to both cancer and heart disease the best advice is to:
    • Get your 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels tested on an annual basis and supplement, if necessary, to keep your 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in what the NIH considers to be an adequate range (20-50 ng/ml).
    • We do not have good dose response data for the beneficial effects of vitamin D on heart disease and cancer. However, according to this article, previous studies suggest you may want to am for 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels above 20 ng/ml to reduce the risk of heart disease and above 30 ng/ml to reduce your risk of cancer.
    • Consider vitamin D as just one component of a holistic approach to healthy, disease-free living.

For more details about the interpretation of these studies and what they mean for you, read the article above.

 

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

 

Health Tips From The Professor Are Omega-3 Supplements Good For You?

Posted December 4, 2018 by Dr. Steve Chaney

Do Omega-3s Reduce Risk Of Heart Disease & Cancer?

Author: Dr. Stephen Chaney

 

Are omega-3 supplements good for you?

are omega-3 supplements good for you fish oilYou have every right to be confused. In the late 1990s and early 2000s several major clinical studies showed that omega-3 supplements reduced the risk of heart attacks and stroke. In contrast, a few months ago a major study called ASCEND was published that failed to find any benefit of omega-3s at reducing heart disease risk. The headlines said “Omega-3 Supplements Don’t Protect Against Heart Disease”. You were told that omega-3 supplements were worthless. I pointed out the weakness of that study in a previous issue  of “Health Tips From the Professor”.

In mid-November two more major clinical studies were published. However, if you rely on the media for your information on supplementation, you are probably still confused. Headlines ranged from “Omega-3 Supplements Do Not Prevent Cancer Or Heart Disease” to “Eating More Fish Or Taking Omega-3 Fish Oil Supplements Can Cut Heart Attack Risk.” What is the truth?

The problem is that reporters aren’t scientists. They don’t know how to interpret clinical studies. What they report is filtered through their personal biases. That is why I take the time to carefully evaluate the clinical studies, so I can provide you with accurate information. Let me sort through the dueling headlines and give you the truth about omega-3s.

Note: One of the clinical studies looked at the effect of omega-3s on both cancer and heart disease risk. I will discuss the cancer results briefly, but most of my focus will be on the heart disease findings.

 

How Were The Studies Designed?

are omega-3 supplements good for you heart disease

The VITAL STUDY (JE Manson et al, New England Journal of Medicine, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1811403 )in the United States. The study participants were 50% female, 50% male, and 20% African American. None of the participants had pre-existing heart disease. The characteristics of the study group were typical of the American population at that age, namely:

  • The average BMI was 28, which means that most of the participants were significantly overweight.
  • 7% of them had diabetes.
  • 38% were on cholesterol-lowering medications.
  • 50% had high blood pressure treated by medication.

Study participants were given questionnaires on enrollment to assess clinical and lifestyle factors including dietary intake. Blood samples were taken from about 50% of the participants to determine omega-3 index at baseline and at the end of the first year. The participants were given a high purity omega-3 supplement (1 gram capsules containing 840 mg of total omega-3s, 460 mg of EPA, and 380 mg of DHA as the ethyl esters) or a placebo and followed for an average of 5.3 years.

There were two important characteristics of this study that distinguished it from the negative ASCEND study.

  • This study specifically excluded cardiovascular drugs other than statins and blood pressure medications because many of those drugs provide the same benefits as omega-3s. Patients in the ASCEND study were on 3-5 heart medications
  • The omega-3 status of participants at the beginning of this study was very low. The omega-3 status of participants in the ASCEND study was near optimal at the beginning of the study.

The REDUCE-IT study (DL Bhatt et al, New England Journal Of Medicine, DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1812792 ): This study enrolled 8,179 participants (average age = 64) from several countries. The study participants were 70% male and 90% white. The average BMI was 31, which is considered obese. This study differed from the VITAL study in that all the patients were at high risk of heart disease.

  • 70% of them had preexisting heart disease.
  • The remaining 30% had diabetes plus at least one additional risk factor for heart disease.
  • In addition, all of them had elevated triglycerides, which is an independent risk factor for heart disease.

The participants were given a high purity EPA supplement (4 grams of EPA as the ethyl ester) or a placebo and followed for an average of 4.9 years.

 

Do Omega-3s Reduce The Risk Of Heart Disease?

 

are omega-3 supplements good for you heart attackThe VITAL Study: The primary end point for this study was something called “major cardiovascular events”, which was a composite every cardiovascular end point measured in the study. For this end point the results were negative. Omega-3 supplementation did not cause a significant decrease in major cardiovascular events compared to the placebo.

This was the result that was reported in the abstract and was what lazy journalists, who never read past the abstract, reported.

However, the rest of the study was very positive. For example, major cardiovascular events were reduced by:

  • 26% in African-Americans.
  • 26% in patients with diabetes.
  • 17% in patients with a family history of heart disease.
  • 19% in patients with two or more risk factors for heart disease.
  • 19% in patients with low fish intake.

In other words, omega-3 supplementation caused a significant decrease in heart disease risk for high risk patients and for patients with a poor diet (low intake of omega-3s).

In addition, several individual cardiovascular events were significantly reduced by omega-3 supplementation. For example:

  • Heart attacks were reduced by 28% in the general population and by 70% for African-Americans.
  • Death from heart attacks was reduced by 50%.
  • Total coronary heart disease was reduced by 17%.
  • Death from coronary heart disease was reduced by 24%.

In short, headlines saying that omega-3 supplementation can decrease heart attack risk appear to be accurate. Saying that eating more fish can reduce heart attack risk is stretching it a bit. The study was not done with fish, and you would need to eat 2-4 servings of omega-3-rich fish a week to get an equivalent amount of omega-3s. That’s a lot of fish.

The authors attributed the positive results obtained in this study compared to the negative results obtained in several recent studies to four factors:

  • Many of the previous studies had fewer participants, used lower doses of omega-3s, and were shorter. There may not have been enough statistical power to demonstrate a benefit of omega-3s in those studies.
  • Participants in many of the previous studies were on multiple medications that mimicked the beneficial effects of omega-3s, making it more difficult to show a positive effect of omega-3 supplementation.
  • Most of the previous studies either did not measure the omega-3 status of participants or had a study population that started the study with near optimal omega-3 status. The VITAL study showed that omega-3s had a stronger beneficial effect for people who seldom ate fish.
  • African-Americans were underrepresented in most previous studies. The VITAL study showed that omega-3s were more beneficial for African-Americans than for other ethnic groups.

As for side effects, there was no increased risk of bleeding or any other serious side effect from omega-3 supplementation.

The REDUCE-IT Study: This study of high-risk patients was even more positive than the VITAL study.

  • The composite of all cardiovascular end points was reduced by 25%.
  • The risk reduction was greatest for men, non-whites, and people over 65.
  • The risk reduction was also greatest for people with pre-existing heart disease, very high triglyceride levels, and people who required high-dose statin therapy to keep their cholesterol under control.

In other words, everyone benefited from omega-3 supplementation in this study because they were all at high risk, but those at the highest risk benefitted the most.

When they looked at individual cardiovascular events:

  • Fatal and non-fatal heart attacks were reduced by 31%.
  • Cardiovascular death was reduced by 20% and death from any cause was reduced by 23%.
  • Fatal and non-fatal stroke was reduced by 28%.
  • Hospitalization for unstable angina was reduce by 32%.

However, this very high dose of EPA was not completely without risk:

  • 1% of patients in the EPA group were hospitalized for atrial fibrillation versus 2.1% in the placebo group.
  • 7% of patients in the EPA group experienced a serious bleeding event compared to 2.1% in the placebo group.

 

Do Omega-3s Reduce The Risk Of Cancer?

 

are omega-3 supplements good for you cancerThe VITAL Study: The VITAL study also looked at the effect of omega-3s on cancer risk. The results from this study were uniformly negative. There was no effect of omega-3 supplementation on invasive cancer of any type, breast cancer, prostate cancer, colon cancer, or death from cancer. Does that mean omega-3s have no role in reducing cancer risk? That’s not clear.

If we look at previous animal studies and human association studies, reduced cancer risk is seen when omega-3s replaced saturated fats, trans fats, and/or omega-6 fats in the diet. The subjects in the VITAL study ate a typical American diet, and the study made no effort to change what they were eating. It just added an omega-3 supplement. There is relatively little evidence that you can eat burgers and fries and expect omega-3s to reduce cancer risk.

The VITAL study merely confirms what previous studies have suggested. You can’t continue to eat a typical American diet and expect omega-3s to make cancer go away. Omega-3s should be thought of as part of a holistic approach to reducing cancer risk. If they have any role in reducing cancer risk, it is likely to be as part of a primarily plant-based diet that substitutes omega-3s for the bad fats in the American diet.

For example, the Mediterranean diet is primarily plant-based and is rich in healthy oils like olive oil and omega-3s. It is associated with reduced risk of several cancers, especially cancers of the breast and colon.

 

Are Omega-3 Supplements Good For You?

are omega-3 supplements good for you truthThere is a lot of confusion around the question of whether omega-3s are good for the heart. Some studies say yes. Others say no. If you average all the studies together, as some recent meta-analyses have done, it is easy to throw up your hands and conclude there is no definitive evidence that omega-3s reduce heart disease risk. However, if you look at why the studies differ a clear pattern emerges.

  • If the study subjects are on multiple heart medications that duplicate the beneficial effects of omega-3s, the studies tend to be negative. If the subjects are only on one or two medications, the studies tend to be positive. Since most people I know would prefer to minimize the number of medications they are on, the negative studies with multiple medications are simply not relevant to them.
  • If the study subjects are at low risk of heart disease, the studies tend to be negative. If the subjects are at high risk, the studies tend to be positive. This does not mean that omega-3s are of no benefit if you are at low risk of heart disease. It simply reflects the fact it is easier to show a beneficial effect of any intervention when you have a pool of high-risk patients who are likely to experience some sort of cardiovascular event during the time-period of the study.

For example, as discussed in my recent book, “Slaying The Supplement Myths,” this the same pattern you see with statin clinical studies. If patients are at high risk, statin drugs clearly save lives. If they are at low risk, it is almost impossible to show any benefit of statin drugs. Cardiologists extrapolate from the high-risk studies and prescribe statins to low-risk patients. I think it is time to take a similar approach with omega-3s.

  • If the subjects have a good omega-3 status at the beginning of the study, additional omega-3 supplementation usually has no benefit. If their omega-3 status is poor at the beginning of the study, the results of omega-3 supplementation tend to be positive. This is just common sense. Supplementation is meant to fill gaps in the diet – not to provide a surplus of nutrients. Of course, the reality is many Americans do not get enough omega-3s in their diet.

 

What Do These Studies Mean For You?

are omega-3 supplements good for you healthy heartOmega-3s Are Good For Your Heart: When you combine the latest studies with what we already know about omega-3s and heart disease, the results are clear-cut.

  • If you are at high risk of heart disease, don’t eat many omega-3-rich fish, and/or don’t want to be on a handful of heart medications, the evidence is strong that omega-3s reduce your risk of heart disease.
  • On the other hand, if you are at low risk of heart disease, eat 2-4 servings of omega-3-rich fish a week, and/or are happy taking multiple heart medications with all their side effects, it is difficult to prove that omega-3s have any benefits. That doesn’t mean that omega-3s don’t have benefits. It just means we can’t prove they do.

If you are still having trouble making up your mind whether omega-3 supplements are the right choice for you, I might remind you:

  • If you are like millions of Americans, the first sign you are at risk of heart disease might be sudden death.
  • If you are like most Americans, you are probably not getting enough omega-3s in your diet.
  • If you prefer taking drugs, you are probably not interested in supplements anyway.

Holistic Is Best: When you combine the VITAL study results with what we already know about omega-3s and cancer, it appears that adding omega-3s to a bad diet is unlikely to reduce your risk of cancer. However, a holistic approach that starts with a healthy, primarily plant-based diet and substitutes omega-3s for the bad fats in the American diet is likely to substantially reduce your cancer risk. The Mediterranean diet might be considered an example of that approach.

The same is likely true for heart health. While the latest two studies suggest that adding omega-3 supplements to your regular diet reduces your heart disease risk, those omega-3 supplements are likely to be even more effective if you also adopt a heart-healthy diet and lifestyle.

Omega-3 Supplements vs Omega-3 Drugs: The Omega-3 preparations used in this study are pharmaceutical-grade omega-3 preparations and are marketed as drugs. Thus, it is likely that many doctors will recommend them rather than less expensive omega-3 supplements. Which choice is best for you?

The preparation used in the VITAL study is similar in composition to many commercially available omega-3 supplements. The main difference is that it is high purity and is subject to the quality control standards required for pharmaceutical drugs. Many omega-3 supplements do not meet these standards, but some do. If you wish to use an omega-3 supplement, do your research. Inquire about their quality control standards and only buy high purity supplements.

The preparation used in the REDUCE-IT study used ultra-pure EPA only. That preparation did not contain any other omega-3s, so a commercially available omega-3 supplement would not be comparable. However, I do not recommend an EPA-only supplement for three reasons.

  • The results for high risk patients in the REDUCE-IT study were similar to those for high risk patients in the VITAL study. This suggests that removing DHA and other omega-3s may not provide additional protection against heart disease. A head to head comparison of the two supplements would be required to prove the superiority of an EPA-only supplement.
  • I have the same concern for this high-dose EPA supplement as I have for any high-dose single nutrient supplement. DHA and other omega-3s provide benefits such as cognitive health that EPA does not. Very high dose EPA is likely to interfere with the uptake and utilization of the other omega-3s.
  • The EPA only supplement used in the REDUCE-IT study had side effects that were not seen with the mixed omega-3 supplement used in the VITAL study. It is not clear whether those side effects were due to differences in dose or differences in formulation.

Omega-3 Ethyl Esters vs Omega-3 Triglycerides: There has been a lot of hype about the superiority of omega-3 triglyceride preparations recently. These studies were both done with omega-3 ethyl esters and proved to be very effective. Until someone shows that omega-3 triglyceride preparations provide better results at reducing heart disease risk than omega-3 ethyl esters, I would leave omega-3 triglyceride supplements on the shelf.

How Much Omega-3s Do You Need? We have too few dose-response studies to reliably predict how much omega-3s are optimal for reducing heart disease risk. The 1 gram/day dose used in the VITAL study gave good results, so that is an excellent starting point. The 4 gram/day dose used in the REDUCE-IT study seemed to provide little additional benefit.

Of course, the optimal dose is likely to be different for each of us. Once the omega-3 index blood test becomes more widely available I would recommend getting your omega-3 index determined on an annual basis and aiming for an omega-3 index of 8 or above, since that is the level associated with a low risk of heart disease.

 

The Bottom Line

 

There is a lot of confusion around the question of whether omega-3s are good for the heart. Some studies say yes. Others say no. If you average all the studies together, as some recent meta-analyses have done, it is easy to throw up your hands and conclude there is no definitive evidence that omega-3s reduce heart disease risk.

However, two recent studies support the effectiveness of omega-3s for reducing heart disease risk. When you combine the latest studies with what we already know about omega-3s and heart disease, the results are clear-cut.

  • If you are at high risk of heart disease, don’t eat many omega-3-rich fish, and/or don’t want to be on a handful of heart medications, the evidence is strong that omega-3s reduce your risk of heart disease.
  • On the other hand, if you are at low risk of heart disease, eat 2-4 servings of omega-3-rich fish a week, and/or are happy taking multiple heart medications with all their side effects, it is difficult to prove that omega-3s have any benefits. That doesn’t mean that omega-3s don’t have benefits. It just means we can’t prove they do.

If you are still having trouble making up your mind whether omega-3 supplements are the right choice for you, I might remind you:

  • If you are like millions of Americans, the first sign you are at risk of heart disease might be sudden death.
  • If you are like most Americans, you are probably not getting enough omega-3s in your diet.
  • If you prefer taking drugs, you are probably not interested in supplements anyway.

In addition, one of the studies confirmed what we already know about omega-3s and cancer. Adding omega-3s to a bad diet is unlikely to reduce your risk of cancer. However, a holistic approach that starts with a healthy, primarily plant-based diet and substitutes omega-3s for the bad fats in the American diet is likely to substantially reduce your cancer risk. The Mediterranean diet might be considered an example of that approach.

The same is likely true for heart health. While the latest two studies suggest that adding omega-3 supplements to your regular diet reduces your heart disease risk, those omega-3 supplements are likely to be even more effective if you also adopt a heart-healthy diet and lifestyle.

For more details read the article above. In addition, the article covers topics like omega-3 supplements versus omega-3 drugs, omega-3 ethyl esters versus omega-3 triglycerides, and how much omega-3s we need. It also discusses why several recent studies have failed to find a benefit of omega-3s for reducing heart disease risk.

 

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

Male Enhancement – Works – Opinions

Male Enhancement is a supplement for the stimulation of male and above all female desire. For the final excitement during sex there is no better product. It is formulated to meet the needs of women of all ages, including those in menopause. Because of its powdered form, it can be put and mixed in any beverage, from plain water to tea and even champagne.

 

It works by improving circulation in the body and triggering the sex hormones that lead to high libido and efficient lubrication. It also improves and enhances the feelings that lead to long and intense orgasms. We have collected this data:

 

WITHOUT GMO – Does not contain GMOs, and is clinically tested

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Male Enhancement – opinions – Italy – works – reviews – has tried it

In Italy Male Enhancement has just arrived and considering that there were no products for female Male Enhancement use and consumption, I must say that I am pleasantly surprised how many women have decided to give a chance to this product.

 

It seems that it works very well and that it is loved and desired by so many men and women. Here below, faithfully reported what they think of this magical dust!

 

Manuele, 33 years old

 

I bought this for my girlfriend and I noticed a complete round in her sexual desire that helps her with her energy levels and she has more confidence in the bed, and I hope with her permission to continue buying this product. This fantastic extract is thought to have strong aphrodisiac effects and can be useful for women who suffer from lack of sexual desire, low libido, low sexual self-esteem and difficulty in sexual performance.

 

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The supplement comes in a packet already measured, so we do not have to worry about how much extra to take. The user opens the package and mixes the powder with a drink and takes it. This product is truly capable of giving the desired effects in just a few minutes. The user does not have to worry about boring his partner while waiting for the formula to work ????. Also, you should not take the supplement every day, only during the desired periods. Or I find it really good and after helping my wife and I, I can only recommend it!

 

Male Enhancement – opinions – Italy – works – reviews – has tried it

 

Male Enhancement – composition – ingredients – herbalist – how to use it? Pharmacy

Male Enhancement has a delicately dosed composition and natural ingredients that even the niche products found in pharmacies can match. The product is used occasionally and when you need it, there is no need to consume it daily if you do not want to do it!

 

The whole concept of female excitation with reduces to some active ingredients. These natural substances include:

L-Arginine

Ginseng

Both substances help to improve circulation and oxygenation of tissues. When a woman is stimulated correctly, the blood circulates in such a way as to fill the tissues, resulting in increased sensitivity. Without adequate flow of blood, it is almost impossible for someone of both sexes to finally get excited and reach an orgasm. From a physiological point of view, the way a man and a woman experience excitement is similar, apart from the parts of the genitals that require stimulation. This is why these two active ingredients are very important for both women and men and are fundamental.

 

The website does not indicate if physical stimulation is still needed to help you arouse excitement, but assistance always improves your experience. Along with the ability to improve your excitement, this formula also works to reduce the impact that menopause has on the rest of your body.

 

Because it helps to improve the hormones associated with sexual arousal, those same hormones are able to counteract the impact of menopause, which has a long list of different symptoms. The most common symptoms include headache, fatigue and even the inability to orgasm. With the increase in female hormones, these symptoms decrease so you can continue enjoying life and sex in a much more beautiful and rewarding way.

 

Male Enhancement – side effects – cheating – badly – contraindications – dangerous

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This stimulating powder has unique aphrodisiac power and increases testosterone and libido. Testosterone is vital for libido, potency, sexual performance and orgasmic response. Addressing specific female sexual health problems, increasing libido and enjoyment is the purpose of this product! We have determined that the product works for:

 

Increase sexual energy in females

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Male Enhancement – side effects – cheating – badly – contraindications – dangerous

 

Male Enhancement – where to buy it? price – amazon –

Where can you buy Male Enhancement? I can tell you that the original product will not find on , ebay or in pharmacy and on amazon. You can buy online, but only on the official website and following the instructions on the site. The price is really low and the cost of shipping is amortized by the offer of 50% off! Take advantage! I will remind you again why it is important to use this supplement.

 

This drink is a concentrate of vegetable raw materials in the form of powder, especially for women of all ages, which can increase their sexual activity and attractiveness increases from the first sachet you take. This instant drink can also be taken by men, contains ginseng and L-arginine.

 

If used, medical supervision is not required. Cooking and taking simply: just strong enough Love powder to dissolve in the liquid and take a drink – a female etiological agent. The manufacturer offers several recommendations for admission, each of which affects a certain problem, for example, for women of age who are worried about menopause, for the development of female hormones, his “program” of use is described.

MX Male – opinions – price

Well, the product we’re talking about today is MX Male called the Gel Beast. Apply this gel and you get results with up to 5 cm more. The costs are minimal compared to the result provided. Read this article and find out what the MX Male is, how it works, the results, promotions and opinions. Do not miss the interaction of your intimate life with the MX Male and place your order via the link below. It depends on you if you want to try the product number 1 for enlarging beast penile gel or not. Stock Control And Valid Only Valid Today! MX Male forum. What is the advantage of this gel in intimate life? Beast the Gel is applied once a day, resulting in a natural increase of the genital body They are available in the form of pills, gels, creams and extenders.

 

There is no doubt that penis extenders are more MX Male discomfort among the methods mentioned above. Pills is good decision for people, who do not suffer from stomach problems. And of course, gels and creams are the easiest to use. Some people experience difficulty swallowing pills or capsules, some have a mild stomach, while penis enlargement gel should be massaged onto the skin. Price Gel is a new product of this type opinions, MX Male created for men who want to increase the size of their penis. The gel comes in 50 ml of tube, which is enough for about a month.

 

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The main active molecules in the  which plays an important role in increasing male sexual stimulation. MX Male works benedicta extract is used for loss of appetite and digestive disorders reviews and for the treatment of colds, fever, bacterial infections, etc. The forum MX Male plant is also used as a diuretic for opinions increasing urine production. Marjoram is an aromatic herb, usually used as a kitchen of additives.Italy – works – opinions – reviews – MX Male forum

 

MX Male – comments – ingredients – such as siusa – composition – herbal medicine

It is a great addition MX Male for every healthy diet. Eugenia chlorophyll bud extract is used to keep men from reaching orgasm too early (premature ejaculation) .MX Male should be commented applied once a day by massaging into the penis. For ingredients to get the best results, it should be used 30 minutes before the sexual act. MX Male herbal medicine is designed to stimulate the flow of blood to the most precious part of the male body. It works very simply – putting composition when you suspect that a sexual relationship is like comments or is already starting to take like

 

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MX Male – where simpatico – pharmacies – price – 

Do not miss the MX Male interaction of your intimate life with the MX Male and place your order via the link where it breaks below. It depends on you if you want to try the product number 1 for enlarging pharmacies in the penis or not. Stock and PRICE Valid Only Valid Today! MX Male forum price. What is the advantage of this Amazon gel in intimate life? Beast the Gel is applied once a day, resulting in where it breaks into a natural MX Male increase in the genital body.In addition to this increase will be greater and the duration of underwear with a maximum of 3 hours. Do you think it’s too much? No pharmacies worry, because you will have the energy needed, all thanks to this gel. It has been recognized who has proved that price porn stars are turning to the help of MX Male for all the benefits it offers. The power of magnification and long term.

Prime Skin Cream – opinions – price

Can you imagine having a product that gives you a Prime Skin Cream? Well, there is one that promises to give a face lift in just 3 minutes. It is rightly called the Prime Skin Cream. 3 minutes makes the product a sound more like a miracle product. If you think this is worth a bit of research ..

You are right!

So, the question is, Will the Prime Skin Cream really work in 3 minutes? At this point we are not sure. However, we will soon find out if this serum is all that is cut to be.

Italy – works – opinions – reviews – forum – who tried it – Prime Skin Cream

The Prime Skin Cream promises Prime Skin Cream Italia work forum using an extraordinary 2-in-1 skin tightening formula that provides immediate results. In other words, your skin will immediately turn out tighter, it works who has tried opinions reducing the appearance of wrinkles. Topical anti-aging product of skin cell contracts with which it is absorbed into the skin, which helps to tighten Prime Skin Cream reviews and smooth wrinkles. This product is designed to make your face look visibly younger in just 90 seconds.

It is important to note that the Prime Skin Cream Italia forum product is designed to provide temporary results. However, manufacturers also say that it is able to produce long-term results if used consistently. The web page of the product also works for those who have tried opinions, highlighting its duration of a study performance test, which involved 25 participants. The test indicates that the progressive effect of skin reviews Prime Skin Cream treatment from the first minute of application in 24 hours.

Prime Skin Cream – comments – ingredients – herbalist – how to use – composition

The Prime Skin Cream  provides Prime Skin Cream herbal commentary results fast and is a great product if you are looking for immediate results. The time Prime Skin Cream line of the thing to expect with the skin care product is to provide ingredients such as using composition on the product web page, and you will notice that its effect does not regress over time.

This product comes with a guarantee Prime Skin Cream herbal remarks of user satisfaction and return it within 30 days and expect a full refund if I am satisfied with the results. The Prime Skin Cream can be conveniently purchased online at the official website of the product. In fact, ingredients such as using composition can achieve savings through discounts on wholesale orders. The product has been tested for safety and has a shelf life of 12 months if stored under appropriate conditions.

Side effects – contraindications – it hurts – Prime Skin Cream

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For starters, the entire list of ingredients Prime Skin Cream Side-effects hurts is not expected. The cost is relatively high if you compare it with other skin care products in its niche. This product can not be effective if used in the long term, contraindications Prime Skin Cream and is mainly marketed as a quick solution.

YOU MUST KNOW WHAT YOU ARE PUT IN YOUR BODY

As we said above, Prime Skin Cream Side Effects hurts the whole list of ingredients is not expected. The website says that the Baro Prime Skin Cream is free contraindications Baro Prime Skin Cream of some specified pathogens.

Ingredients available.

Prime Skin Cream – where you buy – pharmacies – price –

PRIME SKIN CREAM – BUY OR DO NOT PURCHASE – IS THIS GOOD PRODUCT?

If you are looking for a daily face lift, Prime Skin Cream where you buy price this could be the product for you. However, there is a lot that must be considered before buying any type of skin care product. The first is that the ingredients and in this case, you could be buying  pharmacies of a product that does not indicate the complete list of ingredients.

Secondly, the product must be effective Prime Skin Cream where you buy price and while the site has a table showing the performance of the results throughout the day, not the clinical data presented in support of these claims. This seems to be a quick solution for a non-temporary problem. We recommend skip this product, Amazon pharmacies in favor of an effective permanent solution.

Clarinsskin – opinions – price

Clarinsskin : body cream, anti-aging works? reviews, opinions and where to buy. Clarinsskin is a new body cream, body soufflé “for 100% natural anti-aging, make-up, treatment based on grapes and lambrusco. Clarinsskin is between Parma and langhirano, presenting itself as the cream-soufflé with a soft and smooth as silk. The daily application of a body cream, which can be used on all types of skin, ensures the elasticity of the skin and the silk effect, which will help you eliminate the trace of time.

 

What is Clarinsskin cream for the body and how does it work?

Clarinsskin body cream soufflé is available as a cream, available in an airtight 250 ml jar. Clarinsskin cream is indicated for everyday use and can be used throughout the body, for example, women and men, and it is the product, which is clinically tested on animals, do not contain dyes, parabens or harmful to the health of skin substances.

 

Italy – works – opinions – reviews – forum – who tried Clarinsskin

Because of the presence of grape seed oil, this cream is the intensive way to prevent the signs of aging on your body. Italy – works – opinions – reviews – forum – who tried Clarinsskin. continuous use of the product also provides benefits for micro circulation.

 

The composition and components are in Clarinsskin Lambrusco cream

puffed cream ‘Clarinsskin is made of 100% natural ingredients that have been clinically tested and is perfect for skin care. Clarinsskin lambrusco crema is composed of two main components: grape polyphenol seed oil with natural grape.

 

When using Clarinsskin cream for the

blown body cream ‘Clarsskin is very simple to use: apply a small amount in your hand, apply all over the body, massaging until completely absorbed. The Clarinsskin operation can be repeated up to twice a day. the application of the cream, Clarsskin does not affect the помазанную, and above all, does not stain the head.

 

Warnings and contraindications for the use of cream Clarsskin

body cream plate , Clarsskin has no contraindications or side effects, because its composition is clinically tested and does not contain parabens and dyes, and suitable for all skin types. Italy – works – opinions – reviews – forum – who tried Clarsskin. The product must be used on the body, as described in the instructions on the label.

 

Clarinsskin – comments – ingredients – herbalist – how to use it – composition

 

here are some of the reviews on the forum for people who have used Clarinsskin and gave their consent for using the product through an image of their experience: Clarinsskin – comments – ingredients – herbal medicine – how to use – composition.

 

Flavia torre, 37: – I’ve been looking for a couple of weeks, and I have to say that it makes the skin smooth, fresh and pungent. I bought it for its natural ingredients, it is the state that is allergic to the different components. tips.

 

Marcella roggiero, 52 years old: I returned home after a couple of days after the order, in a package that is well designed. very sweet and aromatic, it does not leave oily skin. I use it for the whole body, including the face. I’m satisfied with the money. tina hood, 25 years old: I was looking for a natural cream, and I came across this. I tried, but I did not notice anything special, Clarinsskin – comments – ingredients – herbalism – how to use – composition. has a pleasant smell that lasts for hours, but none of this. quality / price, like all other creams, which can be found in medicine.

 

Side effects – contraindications – it hurts – Clarinsskin

How much does it cost and where to buy Marcello popcorn marcello

soufflé ice cream that you can buy in pharmacies, pharmaceutical industry, medicine or on sites like amazon, Side effects – contraindications – it hurts – Clarinsskin . ebay, or Chinese. the original Clarinsskin is only available on the official website with the following episodes:

 

fill out the form of personal data, enter the correct phone number to contact the mail service, before delivery, the number of packages you want to get. Free shipping In Italy, Side effects – contraindications – hurts – Clarinsskin . cash on delivery.

 

Clarinsskin – where you buy – pharmacies – price – Amazon

Pleasant and moisturizing soufflé, rich in Polyphemus, antioxidants, antioxidant and moisturizing substances. Clarinsskin – where you buy – pharmacies – – . the presence of grape seed oil makes souffle in the mind of measures aimed at preventing the signs of aging throughout the body. more results the skin tone and the beautiful silk effect. The permanent advantages of the product also helps microcirculation.

 

Slows down the aging process of the skin

eliminates cellulite and prevents its appearance

Immediately improves the appearance of the skin and

smooths the color smooth disadvantages, improves the protective functions of the skin and immune system

cells harmful effects on the environment, Clarinsskin – where you buy – pharmacies – price – . giving the skin a healthy and luminous appearance. the company has received numerous awards for the high quality of its wines and the Lambrusco gran cru marcello has received the award as “best sparkling red wine in the world” at the international wine competition in London.